How to write a literature review?

Have you ever, come across a situation, where you needs to write a literature review? May be for your dissertation work or for the Ph.D thesis writing. Well, first let us try to understand what a literature review is and what the essentials of a literature review are.

A literature review is a text of a scholarly paper. It is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited researchers and scholars.Literature reviews generally use secondary sources, and do not report new or original experimental work, and therefore, it includes the current knowledge including substantive findings, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to any particular topic.

How to write a literature review?

First point to be considered while writing a literature review is the purpose of writing the same. Yes, what is the purpose of writing a literature review? An author shall have clarity in this regard;else, the purpose will be defeated. In this regard, author shall clearly identify key ideas across the literature, and understand the current thinking. Further, the author shall put all reasonable effort to find a ‘gap’ for research.

Secondly, it should be kept in mind that, the audience who are expected to read the literature review are;Researchers, Academicians and fellow Professors. Hence, your literature review shall be of that standard, keeping the audience in mind.

Third, the tone of the language you use to write a review of literature. It shall be formal and objective oriented. Further, review of literature shall be tentative opinions based on text.

Last but not the least, the structure of literature review. Introduction, body and conclusion part of the literature review shall be without any headings or sub-headings. It is essential to include the explanation of similarities and differences. Further, a literature review shall also include a critical comment on the specific area of research.

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How to write a case study?

How often you are asked to write a case study during your college days. Do you ever, have a clear indication as to what is expected to be the content of a case study? ON THE OTHER HAND,do you have any training on how to write a case study? If not, do not worry, we will help you on how to write a case study. Prior to that, let us try to understand what a case study is.

A case study is a particular instance of something used or analysed in order to illustrate a thesis or principle. In other words, it is a process or record of research into the development of a particular person, group, or situation over a period.

Case studies are analyses of persons, events, decisions, periods, projects, policies, institutions, or other systems that are studied holistically by one or more method. The case that is the subject of the inquiry will be an instance of a class of phenomena that provides an analytical frame — an object — within which the study is conducted and which the case illuminates and explicates.

In this regard, it is essential to keep following points in mind, while writing a case study.

Purpose of writing a case study is to examine a situation, and to identify both positive and negatives of above-mentioned situation. Mere identifying the plus and minus of a given situation will not serve the purpose of writing a case study. In addition, it shall also provide specific recommendations as to overcome the lacuna or to further improve the situation.

A case study shall always be written in concise manner, and it shall be based on facts and circumstances. Language to be used in a case study shall be easy to follow, because, the readers may not be always from the group of academicians. They may be professionals, politicians or from public. However, a case study shall be authoritative.

Structure of a case study shall be as follows. Each page of a case study shall be numbered and there shall be headings. There shall be a table of contents at the beginning and an executive summary.

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How to write annotated bibliography?

An annotated bibliography is an index of citations to articles, books and other relevant documents such as website, newspaper etc. The intention (Purpose) ofannotated bibliographyis to inform the readers about the relevance, accuracy and the quality of references cited. Hence, each reference is followed by a brief description of around 150 – 200 words.

As mentioned earlier, the purpose of an annotated bibliography is to identify key articles on the relevant area of research, evaluate the usefulness of the articles in relation to the topic and inform others.

Fellow professionals, researcher and academicians generally read an annotated bibliography. Hence, it shall be very formal and objective oriented. In an annotated bibliography, Title of the Work shall be listed alphabetically by author name. Further, the same shall be followed by a brief paragraph containing a summary and a critique in relation to the topic.

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How to write a research essay?

The term “research essay” is quite common to all of us. Though the term looks simple, it is not that simple as you think. Research essays are the common assignments during the higher education classes. Writing a research essay involves an extensive research and reproducing what you learned from your research. In other words, we can say that, writing a research essay is an exercise, which takes you into the works of others, and asking you to compare your thoughts with that of others.

Following are some of the steps you may adopt to write a research essay;

Selection of Area of Research: It is important to choose an area of research. It is highly appreciated, if you are intending to do a research, then it is recommended to choose an area, where you are having personal interest. For example; in my case, I am interested in the field of Alternative Dispute Resolution, so I must be choosing arbitration as my area of Research.

Selection of Topic of Research: Once, you finalise your area of research, next step is to come up with a Topic of Research. This is possible only when you read as manyas literatures on the given area of research. Therefore, literature review is necessary for finalising a topic of research.

Structure of Research Essays: Generally, a research essay shall contain an introduction, body and conclusion. Normally research essaysare written without any headings.

Purpose of a research essay is to provide an answer to a research question, and a research essay shall present an argument based on the facts.

A research essay shall always be fact based, and there shall be a clear structure. Similarly, there shall be a logical flow and a research essay shall be in concise. Further, always use active voice while writing a research essay.

You may also note that, the peers or academic community mostly reads a research essay. Hence, a research essay is expected to be of that quality.

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How to write a project report?

Writing a project report is necessary for securing good grade in any course. Often all the subjects taught in the higher studies mandates the student to write a project report and submit the same prior to the final exam.

However, how many of you really worked on your project. In most of the cases, a student will collect the project report from seniors, make few modifications, and submit the same in his or her name. That is not the right way.

You know! Here, we are going to reveal that great secret to you on How to write a project report. Writing a project report is very easy, if you consider following steps;

Importance of Project Report: All of us need good grade in all subjects. However, it is often difficult to study the whole syllabus and appear the exam. Therefore, what are the other methods? One such method is to submit a good project report. A well-written project cannot only get you good marks but it can even play a vital role in deciding the rank.

What examiners looking for?:While writing a project report, it is most important to address the concern of the evaluator. That means, a project report shall be written, so that, it can impress the examiner. Only, if your project report convince the examiner, you will be able to score higher grade.

Purpose of a project report is to report on the work already done or a plan for a work to be done. Each project report shall be based on the facts. If the project report is about a work, which is already completed, then one must write a project report in past tense, and if the same is about a future work, then one must write a project report in future tense.

Structure of a project report shall contain;

  1. Title page
  2. Acknowledgements
  3. Executive summary or abstract
  4. Table of contents
  5. Introduction and body (no heading)
  6. Conclusion / recommendations
  7. References or bibliography
  8. Glossary
  9. Appendices


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