CLAT: Way to Legal Education

Common Law Admission Test (CLAT) : Way to Legal Education

The concept of National Law Universities to act as a pace-setter and testing ground for bold experiments in legal education came up because the pattern of legal education at traditional Universities was not found to be satisfactory. In course of time, fourteen National Law Universities were established to achieve excellence in legal education. These Universities are national in the sense that substantial number of seats in all these

Universities are filled-up by students from all over India and the academic staffs are also recruited on all India basis. Till 2007 each National Law University conducted tests separately in different Centers spread all over the country and thousands of students after their 10+2 examinations took those multiple admission tests at considerable expense and with lots of inconvenience. In order to avoid the hardship faced by the candidates in appearing in a number of tests for admission to different individual Universities initiative was taken for conducting a Common Law Admission Test (CLAT) for admission to different National Law Universities. However, only eleven out of the fourteen National Law Universities are part of CLAT. Continue reading “CLAT: Way to Legal Education”

Tips and strategies for CLAT exam

Not only in Common Law Admission Test (CLAT), but also in any other competitive examination, it is essential to have a specific tips and strategies to be adopted, to secure a top rank in the entrance exam. Here are some tips and strategies, which you may adopt for clearing CLAT exam.

Though, each coaching centres adopt and recommend different kinds of strategies for CLAT preparation, we would like to place following tips and strategies before you, for your preparing CLAT examination.

Being a 12th standard student, we recommend you to read newspaper regularly. If time permits, we recommend you to read at least two – three leading newspapers every day. Check the must read newspapers list here.

Reading newspaper regularly will help you to improve your general knowledge and current affairs. In addition, reading English newspapers like Hindu will help you to improve your English. Therefore, reading newspapers will help you to prepare yourself in two major sections of CLAT examination. See the pattern of CLAT examination here. Moreover, since most of the newspapers are available online, there will not be much expense towards the newspaper subscription.

Besides, attending coaching classes, we recommend you to workout previous question papers of Common Law Admission Test, so that, you can evaluate yourself that, where you stand in the competitions. Not only that; solving previous CLAT question papers will also help you to familiarise with the exam pattern and more importantly, it will assist you in time management. In this regard, we recommend you to take as many as mock tests you can.

We strongly believe that, above-mentioned tips and strategies for CLAT preparation will be helping you to prepare yourself for the Common Law Admission Test. We wish you all the very best.

40 days preparation to crack CLAT exam

Until few years, back the month of April and May used to be a busy schedule for students who are preparing for engineering and medical entrance examination. However, now the scenario changed. Latest trend is law entrance examinations viz. CLAT (Common Law Admission Test) and LSAT (Law School Admission Test).

Year after year, the number of candidates appearing for law entrance examinations are increasing. Since, most of the candidates appearing for law entrance exams are those who are appearing 12th standard or plus two, the natural question arise among the candidates as well as the parents are about the time management.

Because, it is utmost important to give priority to the exam papers for 12th standard OR the plus two course. So, in the given circumstances, once the final exam is over, a candidate may get hardly 30 – 40 days to prepare for the Common Law Admission Test. How to better utilise said 40 days for preparing CLAT.

How to crack CLAT exam in 40 days

Let us start with the syllabus for CLAT exam. Each CLAT exam will be consisting of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ’s) from the areas of Mathematics, English, Legal Aptitude, Logical Reasoning, General Knowledge and Current Affairs.40 days is a very short duration for preparing for any competitive exam like Common Law Admission Test. Therefore, it is essential to concentrate more on selected areas and prepare well.

First priority may be given to the legal aptitude section, where it covers almost 50 questions in CLAT. Therefore, it is recommended to thoroughly read and memorise the concepts of legal aptitude. Various textbooks and study materials are available in the market on the subject.

English is another major area where you shall concentrate. Mathematics seems to be the toughest subject for many of the candidates. However, in reality maths is not that tough. However, in the short duration of 40 days mastering mathematics for CLAT will be a tough task. Therefore, subject to your time availability, you may learn all the basics of mathematics. Further, without fail do read newspapers every day. This will help you in preparing yourself with the General Knowledge and current affairs.

How to prepare for CLAT exam in 30 days

Recently have come across an interesting newspaper advertisement of a leading CLAT coaching centre, claiming to offer to prepare for exam (CLAT preparation) in 30 days. I was just wondering that, whether it is possible to prepare for Common Law Admission Test in just 30 days.

Oh yeah may be possible, because, earlier there were lot of books published offering to learn any language in thirty days. For example, learn Tamil in 30 days OR learn Hindi in 30 days etc.

Considering those examples, if someone can learn an unknown language in 30 days, then it will not be a big deal to prepare for an exam, in 30 days, where the whole exam will be held only for two hours.

Well, jokes apart. Do you think that, you can prepare for and clear a highly competitive exam like Common Law Admission Test in just 30 days? If yes, hats off to you. You are genius. However, it is not the case in many others.

Mere 30 days is not enough to prepare for competitive exams like CLAT. It needs lots of preparation and hard work. All you can do in 30 days is to revise, if you already completed your preparation.

CLAT is one of those kinds of examination, where in just two hours’ time, a candidate is asked to answer 200 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ’s). It is very important to note that, those 200 MCQ’s are from the areas of Mathematics, English, Legal Aptitude, Logical Reasoning, General Knowledge and Current Affairs.

Besides, there are negative marks in CLAT exam for every wrong answer. Attending any competitive exam needs lot of preparation, which includes not only the academic preparations but also mental preparations and others like time management etc. Not so all these preparations can be done in 30 days.

So, we request all those who are planning to take up law as a career, and to appear for Common Law Admission test, not to blindly accept such kind of advertisements, as they are misleading advertisements.

However, if you are already prepared well with academic part of the CLAT exam you may take up some crash courses for CLAT. Provided, such course involves a refresher course on the syllabus and where they discuss on tips and strategies for attending CLAT exam and last minute preparations for CLAT exam.

Easy methods to clear CLAT exam

Common Law Admission Test, popularly known as CLAT is the gateway to get an admission to National Law Schools for any LL.B OR LL.M admission. National Law Schools being the prime institutes in the country for legal studies, the entrance exam for selecting candidates for National Law Schools are highly competitive and the same are of high standard. Hence, only those candidates with a dedicated preparation can clear CLAT exam. Following are some easy methods to clear CLAT.

CLAT pattern: It is essential to understand the pattern of CLAT exam. Only then, you can effectively plan your time for each sections of the exam.

Nature of Questions: Secondly, it is essential to note the nature of questions involved in the CLAT examination, only then a candidate can effectively utilise his time during the exam. Because, the questions from each sections viz. mathematics, logical reasoning, legal aptitude, general awareness and English consumes different – different time.

Hope: Though, majority of students starts preparation for Common Law Admission Test at least one or two years prior to the exam, there are many who chose to appear for CLAT during the last lap. There itself many appear for the law entrance half-heartedly. In this regard, what we have to say is, do not lose hope. Have faith, if not on the top-level national law schools, you can get an admission to at least some other national law schools or other law schools in country which accepts CLAT score.

Attitude: Mere academic knowledge or intelligence may not be always makes a candidate to clear CLAT exam. Then, what makes a student to clear CLAT exam. We would say, THE ATTITUDE. Yes. The attitude makes a student to achieve his OR her goal, i.e., to crack CLAT exam.

Previous years CLAT Question Papers: Once, you are done with the academic part, and you feel confident, the next step is to refer previous years CLAT question papers and try to solve the same. This will help you to familiarise with the exam pattern and time management. There are various publishers and CLAT coaching institutes who offers solved CLAT question papers. This will help the candidate to evaluate himself and to further improve.

Online Mock Test for CLAT: Once, you are done with solving previous years CLAT question papers, you may attend some online mock test for CLAT. There are various websites and coaching centres, which offers free online mock test for CLAT. A candidate may utilize their time for attending few of such mock tests.

Finally, you may also chose for some crash courses where you can prepare for CLAT in 30 days OR CLAT preparation in 40 days.

Common Law Admission Test: Pattern of CLAT exam

CLAT or Common Law Admission Test is the gateway to pursue the graduation or post-graduation courses at the National Law Schools. It is essential to understand the pattern of CLAT exam, by all those who plans to attend the Common Law Admission Test.

Pattern of CLAT exam for LL.B

CLAT exam for the undergraduate program is for total marks of 200 marks; consisting of 200, Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ’s) of one mark each. Duration of examination is two hours. Different subject areas covered in the CLAT exam for the undergraduate program are; English including comprehension, General Knowledge and Current Affairs, Elementary Mathematics (including Numerical Ability), Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning.

Subject wise marks weightage areas follows;

  • English including comprehension: 40 Marks
  • General Knowledge and Current Affairs: 50 Marks
  • Elementary Mathematics (including Numerical Ability): 20 Marks
  • Legal Aptitude: 50 Marks
  • Logical Reasoning: 40 Marks

 

Please note that, there shall be a system of Negative Marking, wherein 0.25 marks will be deducted for each of the wrong answer.

Pattern of CLAT exam for LL.M

CLAT exam for the post-graduate program is for a total of 150 marks; consisting of 150, Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ’s) of one mark each.Duration of examination is two hours. Different subject areas covered in the CLAT exam for the postgraduate program are; Constitutional Law, Jurisprudence and Other law subjects such as; Contract, Torts, Criminal Law, International Law, Family Law, property Law, IPR etc.

Subject wise marks weightage areas follows;

  • Constitutional Law:50 Marks
  • Jurisprudence: 50 Marks
  • Other Law Subjects: 50 Marks

 

Please note that, there shall be a system of Negative Marking, wherein 0.25 marks will be deducted for each of the wrong answer.

CLAT Update: How to crack CLAT examination

Admissions to national law schools in India for the course of five year integrated LL.B as well as LL.M are administered through Common Law Admission Test. It is popularly called as CLAT. First Common Law Admission Test was conducted in the year 2008.

Students who have completed 10+2 or intermediate or 12th or its equivalent examination (appearing students can also apply) from the government recognized board with not less than 45% marks (40% in case of SC and ST candidates) as prescribed by the participating universities, may apply for the CLAT 2016 exam for getting admission to five year LL.B course.

Exam for the under graduate programs (LL.B) at national law schools will be of two hours consisting of 200 multiple-choice questions (MCQ’s) covering the areas of English (including comprehension), General Knowledge (GK) and Current Affairs, Numerical Ability (Elementary Mathematics) Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning. Each question carries 1 mark. There will a negative marking system of 0.25 marks per each wrong answer.

Similarly, exam for postgraduate programs at national law schools will be of 2 hours consisting of 150 multiple-choice questions (MCQ’s) from the areas of Constitutional Law (50 questions), Jurisprudence (50 questions), and other law subjects (50 questions), for a total mark of 150. There will a negative marking system of 0.25 marks per each wrong answer.

CLAT is considered to be one of the toughest competitive examination today. Every year lacs of students appear for Common Law Admission Test. Hence, cracking CLAT and getting admission to the right national law school (Candidates can give their college preference) is also a tough job. Therefore, candidates who are willing to take up law as a career shall start preparation for CLAT right now.

There are various study materials or preparatory materials available in the market for preparing yourself for cracking LL.B entrance exam or LL.M entrance exam. Simultaneously, you may also look for some good CLAT coaching centres nearby your place, where you may opt for weekday coaching class, or weekend coaching class, or one-month crash course for CLAT.

Attending coaching classes will be helpful to clear any competitive exams like that of CLAT. Because, there in addition to the academic training, coaching centres also provide training for time management and how to prepare for competitive exams. There are also coaching centres, which offers CLAT coaching online, and distance mode or by post or CLAT correspondence. Hard work and time management in the exam hall is the key to clear any law entrance exams.

National Law Schools and Legal Education in India

In India, legal education refers to the education to a legal professional before they enrol as advocate or before they commence their legal practice. In India, legal education is offered at various levels by specialised national law schools (national law universities) or through traditional universities or through private universities.

In traditional universities legal education is offered at two different courses. These courses are generally called 3 year LL.B or 5 year integrated LL.B. Anyone who has completed the 12th standard with minimum 50% marks and who has not completed the age of 20 can join for 5 year integrated LL.B courses.

Some of the traditional universities offer this as a twin degree course where the student gets a basic degree after the third year (which is equivalent to that of any other graduation) and LL.B degree after the fifth year. However, there are other universities which offer a honours degree at the end of fifth year. For example; B.A, LL.B (Hons.), BBA, LL.B (Hons.), B.Com, LL.B (Hons.) etc. Simultaneously, those who have completed any graduation with a minimum of 50% marks can enrol for 3 year LL.B course.

In the late 1980’s the concept of specialised universities for imparting legal education was evolved and national law schools are established exclusively for imparting legal education in India. India’s first national law school was established in Bangalore under the provisions of National Law School of India Act, 1986 and the first batch was admitted to five year integrated LL.B course.

At present there are 18 national law schools in India. Till 2008, admissions to these national law schools are through separate entrance examination conducted by each national law schools. However, since 2008 all the national law schools (except National Law University, Delhi) jointly conducting a common entrance examination called Common Law Admission Test (CLAT) for admitting students to LL.B as well as LL.M courses.

Now the admissions to national law schools (except National Law University, Delhi) are through CLAT and a centralised allotment system is adopted for seat allotment. However, except National Law University, Delhi conducts a separate entrance test through which they screen the candidates before admitting to the LL.B or LL.M course.

At present, in India, there are around 900 law colleges in India for imparting legal education. However, it is necessary to note that, in order to consider a law degree as a valid degree and to get enrolled as an advocate, the course has to be approved by the Bar Council of India (BCI) and University Grants Commission (UGC). Further, even the college or the institute which offering the law degree shall have the Bar Council accreditation and UGC approval.

All those who have completed LL.B on or after 2010 shall now undergo an all India examination called All India Bar Examination (AIBE) in order to get enrolled as advocate in the roll of Bar Council. Only then he can practice as an advocate and file vakalatnama in his name.

[Breaking] Maximum age limit for appearing CLAT removed

While considering a Public Interest Litigation filed by the students of National Law School of India University, seeking to scrap the maximum age limit criteria for appearing the Common Law Admission Test, Jaipur Bench of Rajasthan High Court, passed an interim order directing Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University, to accept applications without any age discrimination.

In this regard, court further directed Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University, to update their software system, where the applications are accepted online, so that, no applications will be rejected on the basis of maximum age limit.

While issuing the interim order, court observed that, the Bar Council of India, itself withdrawn the Clause 28 of Schedule III, Rule 11 of Bar Council of India Legal Education Rules, 2008 on the ground that, introduction of discriminatory classification of students by prescribing an age limit is in violation of the provisions of the Advocates Act, 1961. Court, further considering the candidates from rural areas said that, fixing maximum age limit will not serve the purpose of conducting Common Law Admission Test.

Read Full Judgment of Kshitij Sharma v. Bar Council of India (04-03-2015, Rajasthan HC) OR Search for D.B. Writ (PIL) Petition No.2497/2015 at Rajasthan High Court, Jaipur Bench

Earlier, in a similar case, Allahabad High Court also scraped the upper age limit for appearing CLAT Exam. Read more on No upper age limit for appearing CLAT exam, on the ground that, the same is in violation of Article 19 of Indian Constitution.

[Breaking] No upper age limit for appearing CLAT exam

While considering a writ petition seeking to issue a Writ of Certiorari, for quashing the advertisement notification issued by Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University, which seeks, seeks to prescribe the upper age limit of 20 years as an essential criterion for appearing in the Common Law Admission Test (CLAT Exam), held that, neither the provisions of State Universities or the National Law School of India Act, OR any other law whereby examination conducting universities have been empowered to fix upper age limit in the Common Law Entrance Examination.

Court further observed that, the statement of objects and reasons of National Law School of India Act, 1986 clearly lays down that one of the functions of the Bar Council of India is the promotion of legal education. Similarly, Object and Reasons of National Law School of India Act, 1986 states as follows;

One of the functions of the Bar Council of India is promotion of legal education. To carry out that object the Bar Council of India created a charitable trust called the Bar Council of India Trust, which in turn registered a Society known as the National Law School of India Society, in Karnataka. The Society framed necessary rules to manage the National Law School of India with powers to confer degrees, diplomas, etc., and requested the State Government to assist it, by establishing the School as a University by a statue so that it could carry out its objects effectively. The State Government considers it desirable to encourage the establishment of such a national level institution in the State.

Court further noted that, when other admission examinations for the courses like B.Ed, CA, SC, MBA etc. do not impose any upper age limit for appearing the common admission test, a restriction of the age to take admission violates the fundamental right as envisaged under Article 19 of the Indian Constitution.

While directing Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University, to accept applications of the petitioners as well as other similar candidates, who are intending to appear the CLAT Exam, Court ruled that, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University, is only an agency given with the responsibility to conduct the Common Law Admission Test, on behalf of respective National Law Universities, at par with the guidelines issued by the Bar Council of India.

Read Full Judgment of Devasheesh Pathak v. BCI, decided on 26-02-2015 (Allahabad High Court). Followed by theJaipur Bench of Rajasthan High Court also removed the maximum age limit for appearing CLAT.