Tips and strategies for CLAT exam

Not only in Common Law Admission Test (CLAT), but also in any other competitive examination, it is essential to have a specific tips and strategies to be adopted, to secure a top rank in the entrance exam. Here are some tips and strategies, which you may adopt for clearing CLAT exam.

Though, each coaching centres adopt and recommend different kinds of strategies for CLAT preparation, we would like to place following tips and strategies before you, for your preparing CLAT examination.

Being a 12th standard student, we recommend you to read newspaper regularly. If time permits, we recommend you to read at least two – three leading newspapers every day. Check the must read newspapers list here.

Reading newspaper regularly will help you to improve your general knowledge and current affairs. In addition, reading English newspapers like Hindu will help you to improve your English. Therefore, reading newspapers will help you to prepare yourself in two major sections of CLAT examination. See the pattern of CLAT examination here. Moreover, since most of the newspapers are available online, there will not be much expense towards the newspaper subscription.

Besides, attending coaching classes, we recommend you to workout previous question papers of Common Law Admission Test, so that, you can evaluate yourself that, where you stand in the competitions. Not only that; solving previous CLAT question papers will also help you to familiarise with the exam pattern and more importantly, it will assist you in time management. In this regard, we recommend you to take as many as mock tests you can.

We strongly believe that, above-mentioned tips and strategies for CLAT preparation will be helping you to prepare yourself for the Common Law Admission Test. We wish you all the very best.

40 days preparation to crack CLAT exam

Until few years, back the month of April and May used to be a busy schedule for students who are preparing for engineering and medical entrance examination. However, now the scenario changed. Latest trend is law entrance examinations viz. CLAT (Common Law Admission Test) and LSAT (Law School Admission Test).

Year after year, the number of candidates appearing for law entrance examinations are increasing. Since, most of the candidates appearing for law entrance exams are those who are appearing 12th standard or plus two, the natural question arise among the candidates as well as the parents are about the time management.

Because, it is utmost important to give priority to the exam papers for 12th standard OR the plus two course. So, in the given circumstances, once the final exam is over, a candidate may get hardly 30 – 40 days to prepare for the Common Law Admission Test. How to better utilise said 40 days for preparing CLAT.

How to crack CLAT exam in 40 days

Let us start with the syllabus for CLAT exam. Each CLAT exam will be consisting of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ’s) from the areas of Mathematics, English, Legal Aptitude, Logical Reasoning, General Knowledge and Current Affairs.40 days is a very short duration for preparing for any competitive exam like Common Law Admission Test. Therefore, it is essential to concentrate more on selected areas and prepare well.

First priority may be given to the legal aptitude section, where it covers almost 50 questions in CLAT. Therefore, it is recommended to thoroughly read and memorise the concepts of legal aptitude. Various textbooks and study materials are available in the market on the subject.

English is another major area where you shall concentrate. Mathematics seems to be the toughest subject for many of the candidates. However, in reality maths is not that tough. However, in the short duration of 40 days mastering mathematics for CLAT will be a tough task. Therefore, subject to your time availability, you may learn all the basics of mathematics. Further, without fail do read newspapers every day. This will help you in preparing yourself with the General Knowledge and current affairs.

How to prepare for CLAT exam in 30 days

Recently have come across an interesting newspaper advertisement of a leading CLAT coaching centre, claiming to offer to prepare for exam (CLAT preparation) in 30 days. I was just wondering that, whether it is possible to prepare for Common Law Admission Test in just 30 days.

Oh yeah may be possible, because, earlier there were lot of books published offering to learn any language in thirty days. For example, learn Tamil in 30 days OR learn Hindi in 30 days etc.

Considering those examples, if someone can learn an unknown language in 30 days, then it will not be a big deal to prepare for an exam, in 30 days, where the whole exam will be held only for two hours.

Well, jokes apart. Do you think that, you can prepare for and clear a highly competitive exam like Common Law Admission Test in just 30 days? If yes, hats off to you. You are genius. However, it is not the case in many others.

Mere 30 days is not enough to prepare for competitive exams like CLAT. It needs lots of preparation and hard work. All you can do in 30 days is to revise, if you already completed your preparation.

CLAT is one of those kinds of examination, where in just two hours’ time, a candidate is asked to answer 200 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ’s). It is very important to note that, those 200 MCQ’s are from the areas of Mathematics, English, Legal Aptitude, Logical Reasoning, General Knowledge and Current Affairs.

Besides, there are negative marks in CLAT exam for every wrong answer. Attending any competitive exam needs lot of preparation, which includes not only the academic preparations but also mental preparations and others like time management etc. Not so all these preparations can be done in 30 days.

So, we request all those who are planning to take up law as a career, and to appear for Common Law Admission test, not to blindly accept such kind of advertisements, as they are misleading advertisements.

However, if you are already prepared well with academic part of the CLAT exam you may take up some crash courses for CLAT. Provided, such course involves a refresher course on the syllabus and where they discuss on tips and strategies for attending CLAT exam and last minute preparations for CLAT exam.

Easy methods to clear CLAT exam

Common Law Admission Test, popularly known as CLAT is the gateway to get an admission to National Law Schools for any LL.B OR LL.M admission. National Law Schools being the prime institutes in the country for legal studies, the entrance exam for selecting candidates for National Law Schools are highly competitive and the same are of high standard. Hence, only those candidates with a dedicated preparation can clear CLAT exam. Following are some easy methods to clear CLAT.

CLAT pattern: It is essential to understand the pattern of CLAT exam. Only then, you can effectively plan your time for each sections of the exam.

Nature of Questions: Secondly, it is essential to note the nature of questions involved in the CLAT examination, only then a candidate can effectively utilise his time during the exam. Because, the questions from each sections viz. mathematics, logical reasoning, legal aptitude, general awareness and English consumes different – different time.

Hope: Though, majority of students starts preparation for Common Law Admission Test at least one or two years prior to the exam, there are many who chose to appear for CLAT during the last lap. There itself many appear for the law entrance half-heartedly. In this regard, what we have to say is, do not lose hope. Have faith, if not on the top-level national law schools, you can get an admission to at least some other national law schools or other law schools in country which accepts CLAT score.

Attitude: Mere academic knowledge or intelligence may not be always makes a candidate to clear CLAT exam. Then, what makes a student to clear CLAT exam. We would say, THE ATTITUDE. Yes. The attitude makes a student to achieve his OR her goal, i.e., to crack CLAT exam.

Previous years CLAT Question Papers: Once, you are done with the academic part, and you feel confident, the next step is to refer previous years CLAT question papers and try to solve the same. This will help you to familiarise with the exam pattern and time management. There are various publishers and CLAT coaching institutes who offers solved CLAT question papers. This will help the candidate to evaluate himself and to further improve.

Online Mock Test for CLAT: Once, you are done with solving previous years CLAT question papers, you may attend some online mock test for CLAT. There are various websites and coaching centres, which offers free online mock test for CLAT. A candidate may utilize their time for attending few of such mock tests.

Finally, you may also chose for some crash courses where you can prepare for CLAT in 30 days OR CLAT preparation in 40 days.

CLAT Preparation: CODING-DECODING Questions – Part II

26. How many such pairs are there in the word GUARDIAN each of which has as many letters between them in the word as In the English language?

a. One   b. Two    c. Three    c. Four

27. If AT=20 and BAT= 40 , then CAT=?

a. 34    b. 56    c. 40    d. 60

28. If in a code, MILD:NKOH ,  then GATE:

a. HCWI          b. ICJW             c.HCIW    d. ICWJ

29. If in a code, K=11 and KEEP=37 , then DRAFT=?

a. 45    b. 48    c. 49     d. 46

30. If FOCUS : GPDVT, then LOTUS:

a.  MPUVT  b. MQUVT c. MQRSV d. SUTO

31. In a certain code, PEAK is written as ‘3512’ and DINE is written as ‘6895’. How is KIND written in that code?

a. 2396 b. 2986 c. 2896  d. 2596

32. I f in a code language ‘CAMELS’ is written as ‘XPOGTZ’ and ‘RABBITS’ is written as ‘YPUULFZ’, how can ‘S. AMERICA’ be written in that code?

a. Z.POGYLAFX            b. Z.OPGYLPX c. Z.POGLXPY d. Z.POGYLXP

33. According to a certain code: ‘min fin bin gin’ means ‘Trains are always late’ , ‘gin din cinhin’ means ‘Drivers were always punished’. ‘bin cin vin rin’ means ‘Drivers stopped all trains’. ‘din kin fin vin’ means ‘All passengers were late’.Which word is represented by ‘vin’?

a. Trains b. Drivers c. Late d. All

34. ‘Drivers were late’ would be written as

a. f in cin din b. min cin din c. f in din gin d. gin hin min

35. ‘hin min kin’ would mean

a. Always late trains b. All passenger trains c. Passengers are late d. Passengers are punished

36. If PALE is coded as 2134, EARTH is coded as 41590, how can is PEARL be coded in that language?

a. 24153      b.24135     c.24513     d.24315

37. If BE QUICK is coded as ZC OSGAI, then the code of the last letter of the third word in the sentence I LOVE MY COUNTRY is

a. X    b. W     c.Yd.A

38. If VICTORY is coded as YLFWRUB, how can SUCCESS be coded?

a. VXXHFVV            b. VXFHFVV           c. VXFFHVV          d. VXFFHVF

39. In a certain code, REFRIGERATOR is coded as ROTAREGIRFER. Which word would be coded as NOITINUMMA?

a. AMMUNITOIN               b.AMMUNITIONc.AMMUNITNOId.AMMUTIINO

40. If in a certain language, GRASP is coded as BMVNK, which word would be coded as CRANE?

a. HWFSJ      b.BWSJHc.FDHUQd.SQRHV

41. In a certain code, COMPUTER is written as RFUVQNPC. How is MEDICINE written in the same code?

a.EOJDJFEMb.EOJDMEFJc.EOJDJDFM      d. EOJDJEFM

42. If in a certain language, UTENSIL is coded as WVGPUKN, which word would be coded as DMSFXG?

a. BKQVDE                      b. BKQDVE      c. BKQDWE          d. BKQDVF

43.  If finger is called toe, toe is called foot, foot is called thumb, thumb is called ankle, ankle is called palm and palm is called knee, which one finger has a different name?

a. Thumb     b. Knee     c.Ankle    d. Palm

44. If in a certain code,TEACHER is written as VGCEJGT, how would DULLARD be written in the same code ?

a. FWNNCTF     b. FWMNCTF            c.  FWMNCTF                d. FWMNTFD

45. If SCIENCE is coded as UFJTJM, GENE will be coded as

a.IHRI          b. IHRJ        c.HRIJd.IHII

46. If rat is called dog, dog is called mongoose, mangoose is called lion, lion is called snake and snake is called elephant, which is reared as pet?

a. lion     b. dog    c.mongoosed.elephant

47. If BOMBAY is written as MYMYMY, how will TAMIL NADU be written in that code?

a. TIATIATIA b. MNUMNUMNU c. IATIATIAT d. ALDALDALD

48. If REASON = 5, BELIEVED = 7, then GOVERNMENT = ?

a. 6    b. 8       c. 9            d. 10

49. In a certain code language 24685 = 33776. Then 35791 = ?

a. 44826                b. 44882            c. 46682                 d. 44682

50. If GO = 32, SHE = 49, then SOME = ?

a. 58     b. 60    c. 57    d. 56

Answers

26. C
27. D
28. A
29. C
30. A
31. C
32. D
33. D
34. A
35. D
36. A
37. B
38. C
39. B
40. A
41. D
42. B
43. C
44. A
45. B
46. C
47. B
48. C
49. B
50. D

 

CLAT Preparation: CODING-DECODING Questions – Part I

1. In a code NATION is written as 583125, BROTHER is written as 4623790. How will be NATO RAIN be written?

a. 5831 6599   b. 5832 5470    c. 5832 0815  d. 6732 1590

2. If ‘678’ means—’Society Family Husbandry’, ‘574’ means—’Husbandry Health Control’, ‘342’ means—’Health Census shop’, then–Which code has been used for ‘Health’ ?

a.5     b. 7       c. 6        d. 4

3. ‘Reds’ are ‘blues’, ‘blues’ are ‘whites’, ‘whites’ are ‘yellows’, ‘yellows’ are ‘oranges’, ‘oranges’ are ‘pinks’, then what is the colour of the sky?

a. white     b. pink            c. blue             d. red

4. In a secret way of writing INDIA is written as JOEJB, how would you SPACE in that language?

a. BUTQE                      b. TQBDF                c. UTQED                             d. SUTQD

5. In a certain code, PAPER is written as SCTGW. How is MOTHER written in that code?

a. POXJJT                    b. ORVLGW                      c. PQXKJV                     d. PQVJGT

6. If a stands for X, b stands for + and d stands for -. What is value of 23 a (108b786b8d90)?

a. 985    b.698      c.598   d. 789

7. If BAD is coded as 5-4-7, then the code for DARK is

a. 7-4-20-14       b.7-4-21-14         c.7-14-21-4                     d. 7-21-4-14

8. In a certain code, ‘BELIEF’ is written as ‘AFKKDI’. How is ‘SELDOM’ written in that code?

a. RDKCNL                    b. TFKENP                c. RFKENM                     d. RFKFNP

9. In a certain code, ‘FORGET’ is written as ‘DPPHCU’. How would ‘DOCTOR’ be written in that code?

a. BPAUMS                       b.BPAUPSc.EMDRPPd.BPARPP

10. If ALTERED is written as ZOGVIVW, how good you write the word RELATED in the same code?

a. VIOGZVW                    b. IVOZGWV              c. VOIZGVW                d.IVOZGVW

11. In a certain code ‘VISHWANATHAN’ is written as ‘NAAWTHHSANIV’. How is ‘KARUNAKARANA’ written in that code?

a. NKKRANKRAUK            b. RURNKAAUNAK    c.AKNUARRANKAd.KAANRAURANAAK

12. In a code, CORNER is written as GSVRIV. How can CENTRAL be written in that code?

a. DFOUSBM                b. GIRXVEP           c. GNFJKER                    d. GJRYVEP

13. In a code language, COULD is written as BNTKC and MARGIN is written LZQFHM. how will MOULDING be written in that code?

a. LNTKCHMF          b. LNTKCHFM                     c.LNTMKCHM          d. LNTKMCHF

14. According to a military code, SYSTEM is SYSMET and NEARER is AENRER What is the code for FRACTION ?

a. CARFTOIN             b. CARFTION               c. CARFNOIT                 d. CARFTINO

15. If DELHI is coded as CCIDD, how would you encode BOMBAY?

a. AMJXVS                b.AMBXVSc.AMJXSV               d. AMJXSB

16. In a certain code, TOGETHER is written as RQEGRJCT. In the same code, PAROLE will be written as

a.NCPQGJ                    b. NCPQJG               b.RCPQJS                     d. RCPQGJ

17. Seven players of a group are selected to play from Sunday to Saturday on different days. Anil plays on Tuesday, Randhir plays two days after him who plays before Bhaskar, Sapan plays after Mahesh but he plays two days before Vishal.Mohan plays two days after Mahesh then on which day, Mohan and Sapan play?

  a. Monday & Thursday          b. Friday & Sunday   c. Monday & Saturday d. Wednesday & Monday

18.  If ‘ROAD’ is ‘WTFI’, then ‘BEAT’ is

a.URDGb.TQCFc.GJFYd.UREG

19. If ‘white’ is called ‘rain’, ‘rain’ is called ‘green’, ‘green’ is called ‘blue’, ‘blue’ is called ‘cloud’,‘cloud’ is called ‘red’, ‘red’ is called ‘sky’, ‘sky’ is called ‘yellow’ and ‘yellow’ is called ‘black’, what is the colour of ‘blood’?

a.Redb.Bluec.Cloudd.Sky

20. The group of letters in each of these questions is to be coded as per the numeric codes and the conditions given below:

Letters: M D E J R I P H A

Numeric Codes:5 8 6 7 2 4 9 3 1

Conditions:

i] If the last letter of the letter group is a vowel, then both the last and the first letters are to be coded

as the number representing the vowel as the first letter.

ii] If the first letter of the letter group is a vowel, then both the first and the last letters are to be coded as the number representing the consonant as the first letter.

iii] It both the first and the last letters are vowels, then both these letters are to be coded as ‘0’

MEJHR

a. 96732 b.56734 c.56732d.None of these

21. PHAID

a. 03140 b. 43144 c. 93149 d. None of these

22. IMDHP

a. 45834 b. 95839 c. 45839 d. None of these

23. AJRPI

a. 17294 b. 47294 c. 17291 d. 07290

24. DRHMJ

a. 82357 b. 42357 c. 02350 d. None of these

25. In a certain code language ‘OMNIPRESENT’ is written as ‘QJONPTSMDRD’. How is ‘CREDIBILITY’ written in that code?

a. JEFSDCXSHKH             b. JEFSDDXSHKH            c. DSFEJDDXSHKH        d. JEFSDDZUJMJ

 Answers

  1. C
  2. D
  3. A
  4. B
  5. C
  6. C
  7. B
  8. D
  9. A
  10. D
  11. D
  12. B
  13. A
  14. C
  15. A
  16. B
  17. D
  18. C
  19. D
  20. C
  21. D
  22. D
  23. D
  24. A
  25. B

CLAT Preparation: Legal Reasoning Questions – Part I

1. Principle- Punishment can only be prescribed to the cause in law

A intended to cause B’s death and therefore mixed poison in a glass of milk and offered it to B. However, the contents of the glass spilt. Thereafter, C who also wanted to kill B, mixed cyanide in the same glass not realizing that traces of the poison mixed by A still remained. C offered the glass to B and as a result, B died.

a. A is guilty of murder and C is guilty of murder

b. A is not guilty and C is guilty of murder

c. A is liable for culpable homicide and C is guilty of murder

d. A and B are both guilty of culpable homicide

2. Principle: A master shall be liable for the fraudulent acts committed by his servants in the course of employment.

Ms. Y was an old woman and she sought help of her cousin Mr. X ,who was a clerk in a Bank , in creating an account with the Bank. Ms. Y placed complete trust on Mr.X and regularly handed over money to be deposited in her account. She later learnt that Mr. X had misappropriated all the funds. Ms.Y sued the Bank.

a. Ms.Y’s action will succeed

b. Ms. Y will not succeed because she was negligent

c. Ms. Y will not succeed because Mr.X was acting in the capacity of her cousin

d. None of the above

3. Principle: Causing damage to another person is not actionable in law unless there is also caused an injury to the plaintiff.

ABC Coaching was a popular tuition center run by Mr.X. However, Mr.Y opened a new coaching center named PQR Coaching, right next to ABC Coaching. As a result, ABC coaching lost out a lot of its students. This also resulted in monetary losses and subsequently it had to be shut down. Mr X later filed a suit against Mr.Y for loss of earnings.

a. Mr.X will succeed because he has incurred monetary damage

b. Mr.X will not succeed because no legal right has been infringed

c. Mr. X will succeed because his legal right to livelihood has been curtailed

d. None of the above

4. Principle: Something done to prevent a greater harm can be used as a defence.

Mr. A was the captain of Olympus, which was carrying fifty people across the Atlantic. The ship was caught amidst a storm and was about to sink. Mr. A pushed out two passengers with their luggage, so that the ship could maintain balance. He made sure that they had their life-jackets with them. Despite that, they succumbed to their injuries and died. The rest of the passengers, however, got through unscathed.

a. Mr.A is liable for culpable homicide

b. Mr.A is liable for murder

c. Mr.A is not liable

d. Mr.A is guilty of negligence.

5. Principle: The occupier of a premise owes a duty of care to all his invitees and visitors.

P was the owner of a posh bungalow and had a ferocious dog. P had initially put up a board outside that read ‘Beware of Dogs’. However, the board got damaged due to bad weather. P had also put up a mail box outside his bungalow. The postman came in to deliver the letter and got bitten by the dog as a result of which, he suffered injuries.

a. P is liable since the postman entered his house in pursuance of his duty

b.P Is not liable since the postman was negligent

c. P is not liable since the postman was a trespasser

d. P is not liable since the postman was not an invitee.

6. Principle: An act of God is an operation of natural forces so unexpected that no human foresight or skill could reasonably be expected to anticipate it.

For the past week, there had been average to high rainfall in the Punchkula region. Mr.A was engaged in a dyeing company and had left some dyed cloth on his terrace for drying since it had not rained in the past two days. However, it rained that day and the cloth got washed away. The customers filed a suit against him, in response to which Mr. A claimed the defence of act of God.

a. Mr. A will not be liable since the intensity of rainfall could not be predicted

b. Mr. A will be liable since he did not take adequate precautions

c. Mr.A will not be liable since he had committed the act in good faith

d. None of the above

7. Principle: For a contract an offer has to be made that is accepted and there is consensus ad idem.

Mr. X  goes to a shop and asks the shopkeeper  to deliver rice to his residence. In their previous dealings of about 12 years, he had always ordered the Basmati variety of rice. The shopkeeper stores five varieties of rice. He delivers Krishnakali variety. Mr. X had wanted Basmati. Shopkeeper wants to enforce the contract.

a. There was offer. There was acceptance. Therefore, the contract is enforceable.

b. There was no consensus ad idem. Therefore, the contract is void.

c. A contract is based on other considerations under Section 26 of the Indian Contracts Act; one such consideration is previous dealings‖, according to which, previous dealings would form an implied understanding as to the subject.

d. Both parties understood rice to be the subject matter of the agreement. Therefore, there was consensus ad idem.

8. Principle: Mere knowledge of the risk does not imply consent to undergo harm.

A and B had entered into a fight. C intervened and got hit by A.C filed a suit against A. However, A said that C had consented to getting hit.

a. C only had knowledge, and did not consent to getting hit

b. C’s consent could be inferred from his intervention

c. C had acted in good faith and therefore, the defence cannot be taken

d. None of the above

9. Principle: Any person who has received any unjust benefit, he/she must return it to the rightful owner.

A and B had similar sounding names. The postman delivered a parcel meant for B at A’s residence, by mistake.

a. A can retain the parcel without informing B

b. A can retain the parcel since it was the postman’s fault

c. A cannot receive any unjust benefit and should return the parcel

d. A can inform B and not return it.

10. Principle: Whoever uses force without any lawful justification commits battery.

A punched B without any reason and they entered into a fight. C intervened and got badly hit by A.

a. A committed battery against B only. He did not intend to hit C.

b. A did not commit battery against B and C.

c. A had a lawful justification to hit C and therefore is not guilty of battery.

d. A committed battery against B and C.

11. Principle: When any person dishonestly takes any movable property out of the possession of any other person without his/her consent, he/she is guilty of theft.

Ms.Y came to Ms.P’s house. When Ms.Y returned, she realized that Ms.P had left her pen in Ms.Y’s book.

a. Y commits theft because the pen has been taken without consent.

b. Y does not commit theft because she had not intended to take the pen.

c.Y commits theft because she has taken a pen which is a movable property.

d.Y commits theft because she has moved the pen from P‘s house.

12. Principle: An injurious statement of fact directed against a particular person and made public amounts to defamation.

The Intelligentsia Society of Kolkata invited Mr.Ray to deliver a lecture on good governance. In his lecture, Mr.Ray said that modern day politicians are all corrupt and should be put behind bars. Mr.Yadav was an MP from the Manikpur constituency and was the only politician in the audience. He filed a suit for defamation against Mr.Ray

a. Since Mr. Yadav was the only politician, the statement was directed towards him and Mr.Ray is liable.

b. Mr.Ray is not liable since the statement was not published.

c. Mr.Ray is liable since it was an injurious statement

d. Mr.Ray is not liable since his statement was not directed at Mr.Yadav

13. Principle: Nuisance is the unlawful interference with a person’s use or enjoyment of his land

Juniper is an avid bee-keeper. Within the limits of his house, he has installed facilities for bee-keeping and extracting honey. R takes up a house next to Juniper. R is a mechanic and conducts his minor repair jobs at home itself. Juniper filed a claim for nuisance against R saying the noise emanating from his repair works reduces the production of honey.

a. R is liable for creating noise and disturbing Juniper’s bees.

b. R is not liable and has the right to do as he pleases on his land

c. R is liable since he knew about Juniper’s bees.

d. R is not liable- Juniper can take legal action only after warning R about the consequences of noise.

14. Principle: Special damage is the loss of some material advantage, pecuniary or capable of being estimated in money which arises on account of special or unusual circumstances affecting the plaintiff.

R has been sending his Tourist cars for repairs, maintenance and service to ABC, who promptly attended to all the works during the past five years. However, when R sent a new Sumo van for servicing and minor repairs, he indicated to the manager of ABC that the vehicle must be delivered, duly serviced, by 10th August 2010 at 5 PM as three foreign tourists had booked the vehicle for a period of 3 months. The vehicle was not delivered as required, but was delivered only on 12th August 2010. R had lost the contract with the foreign tourist and a loss of revenue to the extent of Rs.30,000.

a. R can sue the ABC for damages including exemplary or special damages to the extent of Rs.30,000/-

b. R can sue ABC for ordinary damages for two days delay

c. R cannot sue ABC for any damages

d. R can sue the Manager of the ABC for damages.

15. Principle: Agreement by way of wager is void and no suit lies for recovering anything won by such wager.

Mr. X and Mrs. Y enter into a contract with R who is an expert in betting on horse racing. Both pay a sum of Rs.2,000/- to R to bet on a particular horse. R followed the instructions and he won a sum of Rs.20 lakhs.

a. R has to pay Rs.20 lakhs to Mr. X and Mrs. Y

b. R can divide Rs.20 lakhs into three parts and share it equality with Mr. X and Mrs. Y

c. R can keep Rs.15 lakhs and give 5 lakhs to Mr. X and Mrs. Y

d. R need not give anything to Mr. X and Mrs. Y as this agreement is not enforceable.

16. Principle: The damages payable to a person who has suffered injury due to someone else’s negligence will be reduced by the proportion of the plaintiff’s own contribution to his injury.

Mr. X was an internationally renowned wrestler. He decided to undertake a rare operation. However, he did not inform the doctor that he was suffering from a genetic anomaly. The doctor also, in his part, did not administer anesthesia properly. As a result, the operation failed and Mr.X became paralyzed.

a. Mr.X will be liable since he had the last opportunity to avoid the accident

b. Mr.X will be liable to the extent of not disclosing his anomaly

c. The doctor will be wholly liable for being negligent

d.None of the above

17. Principle: Every person has a right to defend his own person, property or possession against an immediate harm, and to that end, may use reasonable amount of force.

Mr. Gemini was passing by Mrs. Vadhera’s house. At that time, Mrs. Vadhera’s dog ran out and bit Mr. Gemini’s overcoat. Mr. Gemini turned around and shot at the dog however, the dog ran away. While the dog was far away from Mr. Gemini, Mr. Gemini shot the dog dead as he believed that the dog had bitten other persons in the locality. Mrs. Vadhera filed a suit for damages as the dog was of a rare breed and worth Rs.5000/-

a. Mrs. Vadhera will succeed because Mr. Gemini killed the dog, as his right of private defence has elapsed.

b. Mrs. Vadhera will not succeed because Mr. Gemini is justified in shooting the dog.

c. Mrs. Vadhera will not succeed because Mr. Gemini took the action to protect him as well as many other members of public in future.

d. Mrs. Vadhera will succeed because she lost her precious dog.

18. Principle: If a party’s consent has been obtained by misrepresentation, the party to whom the misrepresentation has been made may reject the contract.

J is in need of a house for immediate occupation and hence approaches S, the owner of a house. The house is in a visibly precarious condition and requires a few repairs in order to make it habitable. However, S tells J that the house is good for lodging and Jsigns the lease agreement with S. Jthen finds out the actual state of the house and seeks to reject the contract

a. J will not succeed because it is his lookout to ensure that he is not entering into a contract that is disadvantageous for him

b. J will succeed because S, knowing that the house was required for immediate occupation, ought to have informed J as the state of the house

c. J will succeed because J would never have signed the lease if S had mentioned that the house was inhabitable

d. None of the above

19.Principle: When one party to the contract is in such relation with the other party as to be able to dominate his/her will, and uses this superior position to obtain the other party’s consent to a contract, s/he is said to have exercise undue influence.

Ajit’sgrandfather has 3 sons’ one of them being Ajit’s father. Ajit’s grandfather gifts his best properties to Ajit. Ajit’s two uncles sue their father, i.eAjit’sgrandfather, stating that his consent to the gift has been obtained through the exercise of undue influence.

a.The gift is invalid because the grandson is in a position to exercise his domination based on the natural love and affection with his grandfather regards him

b. The gift is valid because no such relation, domination or undue influence can be shown in the facts

c. The gift is invalid because the grandfather is obliged to distribute all his properties equally between all offspring

d. The gift valid because the grandfather has the freedom to do as he pleases with  his properties

20.Principle: Mere promise without a proper follow-up does not create binding legal obligation

Thapa plans to make a prayer hall for all of his villagers. A rich villager, Chapa, promises to give him Rs. 1,00,000/- towards building the prayer hall. Thapa begins work on the prayer hall and then Chapa refuses to pay him.

a. Thapa can initiate legal action against Chapa for breach of promise and succeed

b. Thapa cannot succeed since there was a mere promise

c. Thapa cannot succeed since he did not complete building the hall

d. Thapa can succeed because when Chapa made the promise he impliedly accepted it.

21. Principle- Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be murdered or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being murdered shall be punished.

A kidnaps K intending and knowing the fact to be likely that K may be sacrificed to an idol so that his wife will be cursed from the three months long fever. Police arrested A. A defends himself that his intention is not to murder K. Decide.

a. A is not liable because he has not kidnapped for murder.

b. A is not liable for intention to murder rather than liable for kidnapping

c. A is liable for kidnapping and abduction

d. A is liable for both kidnapping, and abducting in order to murder.

22. Principle: Imposition of total restraint on the liberty of a person without lawful justification constitutes false imprisonment

R wished to enter a swimming pool but did not have passes for the same. The policeman at one gate did not allow him to enter. R claimed false imprisonment.

a. The policeman is liable for restraining R

b. Policeman is not liable since there was lawful justification

c. Policeman is not liable since other gates could still be accessed and there was not total restraint

d. None of the above

23. Principle: If a person acts with malice without reasonable cause, and institutes proceedings against another innocent person. Then the first person has committed the tort of malicious prosecution

S and C are childhood enemies and even as adults continue to be so.Now, they run rival cinema halls.One day there is a break-in at S’s cinema hall and the day’s collection is stolen. S seizes the opportunity and complains to the police. She institutes proceedings against C. The prosecution takes its course and the Court holds C guilty. C sues S for malicious prosecution.

a. S is guilty because she instituted proceedings against S.

b. S is guilty because her actions were backed by malice.

c. S is not guilty because there was no malicious prosecution since C was convicted

d. None of the above.

24. Principle: Everybody is under a legal obligation to take reasonable care to avoid act or omission which he can foresee would injure his neighbor. The neighbor for this purpose is any person whom he should have in his mind as likely to be affected by his act.

K, while driving his car at a high speed in a crowded road, knocked down a cyclist. The cyclist died on the spot with a lot of blood spilling around. L, a pregnant woman passing by, suffered from a nervous shock, leading to an abortion. L filed a suit against K claiming damages.

a. K will be liable, because he owed a duty of reasonable care to everyone on the road including L.

b. K will not be liable because he could not have foreseen L suffering from a nervous shock which eventually led to an abortion from his act.

c. K will be liable to L because he failed to drive carefully.

d. None of the above.

25. Principle: Interference with someone’s possession or enjoyment of land constitutes the tort of trespass

V, a class 10 student, is riding his bicycle back home at night after tuitions. Since he is getting late for dinner, he decides to take a shortcut and thinking that he is passing through his father’s property , ends up passing through S’s property. S sees him and sues him for trespass.

a. S’s action will not succeed because V is a minor.

b. V is not liable because he entered S’s property mistakenly , thinking it to be his father’s.

c. V Is liable because he should have verified whose property he was passing through.

d. V is liable because irrespective of his belief, he has violated S’s rights by trespassing into his property.

Answers

1.c

2.c

3.b

4.c

5.a

6.b

7.b

8.a

9.c

10.d

11.b

12.d

13.b

14.a

15.d

16.b

17.a

18.b

19.b

20.a

21.d

22.c

23.c

24.b

25.d

CLAT Preparation: Statement-Assumptions Questions – Part I

Mark the answers as

(a) if only assumption I is implicit

(b) if only assumption II is implicit

(c ) if either I or II is implicit

(d) if neither I nor II is implicit

(e ) If both I and II are implicit

1. Statement: Computer education should start at school itself.

I: Learning computers is easy

II: Computer education fetches jobs easily

2. Railway officials have started ten new trains and the increased the frequency of fourteen running trains

I: the existing trains are not sufficient to provide accommodation to all passengers

II: The new and additional trains would have sufficient passengers so that they will be economically viable

3. Even with the increase in the number of sugar factories in India, we will continue to import sugar.

I:The consumption of sugar per capita has increased in India.

II: Many of the factories are not in a position to produce sugar to their fullest capacity

4. Children are influenced more by their teachers nowadays.

I: The children consider teachers as their role models.

II: A large amount of a child’s time is spent in school.

5. The organization should promote employees on the basis of merit alone and not on the basis of length of services or seniority

I: Length of services or seniority does not alone reflect the merit of the employee

II: It is possible to determine and measure the merit of an employee-e

6. Many historians have done more harm than good by distorting truth.

I: People believe what is reported by historians.

II: Historians are seldom expected to depict the truth

7. Greater public participation results in good civic governance – Statement of Municipal Commissioner of City A

I: The municipal offices is not competent to effect good civic governance

II: Good civic governance is a matter of collective will and effort of the people and administration.

8. The end of a financial year is the ideal time to take a look at the performance of various companies

I: All the companies take such a review at the end of a financial year

II: the performance data of various companies is available.

9. Success is how much a person bounces up after hitting the bottom

I: Success requires conscious efforts without being discouraged by failure

II: Failure cannot be considered an acceptable thing

10. The government has set up a fact finding mission to look into the possible reasons for the recent violence in the area.

I: The mission may not be able to come up with credible information about the incidents.

II: the people in the area may cooperate with the mission and come forward to give detailed information related to the incidents.

11. As there is great demand, every person seeking tickets of the programme will be given only five tickets.

I: The organizers are not keen on selling the tickets.

II: No one is interested in getting more than five tickets

12. Though the state cultivates only 3.5 lakh tonnes of grapes, they are of premium quality. And with the grapes becoming the second most consumed fruit in the world after mangoes, the government has been trying exporting it through sea route which is cheaper.

I: Quality of grapes is an important factor in export.

II: The state also exports good quality of mangoes.

13. More than a decade of erosion in budgetary support from the Union government has seriously affected Indian railway’s capacity to finance its planned expenditures.

I: It is likely that the government has shifted its focus from railways to the other areas.

II: Union government has not been able to enhance its resources base for budgetary support to various areas.

14. People are very happy that the relations between Israel and Egypt are improving.

I: The relations between Israel and Egypt have been strained.

II: The improvement of relations between the two countries affects the people the most.

15. The secretary of coir board resigned from the post six months before his term was to end. The new will be appointed by the CMD shortly.

I: The secretary of Coir Board is appointed for a fixed term.

II: The secretary can be appointed by the CMD

16. Please consult me before taking any decisions on export from the company.

I:  You may take a wrong decision if you don’t consult me.

II: It is important to take a right decision.

17. Sometimes a person acting out of conviction, pursuing a dream represents the spirit of an entire generation.

I. One gets conviction out of one’s action.

II. Expectations of different generations are not the same.

18. It doesn’t matter where or how a car is built. It’s only the utility and price that is important:. – A multinational automobile company.

I. Even if the price is high, people will purchase the foreign-built car.

II. People prefer indigenous cars to foreign-media ones.

19. Many people have expressed surprise as the princess has broken the royal tradition of marriage by choosing a commoner as her life partner.

I. People expect royal families to observe customs and traditions.

II. People still value purity of royal blood and status when it comes to a marriage of members of royal family.

20. Nobody can predict how long our country would take to contain the unfortunate and disastrous terrorist activities

I: It is impossible to put an end to terrorist activities

II: Efforts to control the terrorist activities are on.

21. The concession in rail fares for the journey to hill stations has been cancelled because it is not needed for people who can spend their holidays there.

I. Railways should give concession only to needy persons.

II. Railways should not encourage people to spend their holidays at hill stations

22. The Government has decided to levy 2 percent on the tax amount payable for funding drought relief programmes.

I. The Government does not have sufficient money to fund drought relief programmes.

II. The amount collected by way of surcharge may be adequate to fund these drought relief programmes.

23. Apart from the entertainment value of television, its educational value cannot be ignored.

I. People take television to be a means of entertainment only.

II. The educational value of television is not realized properly.

24. : His recent investment in the shares of Company A is only a gamble.

I. He may incur loss on his investment.

II. He may gain from his investment.

25. The district administration has issued a circular to all the farmers under its jurisdiction advising them for not using pesticides indiscriminately as it may pollute the ground water.

I. People may stop using ground water if the farmers continue to use pesticides indiscriminately.

II. Farmers may refrain from using pesticides indiscriminately.

Answers

  1. A
  2. E
  3. C
  4. A
  5. E
  6. A
  7. B
  8. E
  9. A
  10. E
  11. D
  12. A
  13. A
  14. C
  15. C
  16. E
  17. A
  18. D
  19. E
  20. B
  21. A
  22. E
  23. A
  24. C
  25. B

CLAT Preparation: Strong and Weak arguments – Part I

Mark the answer as

(a) if only argument I is strong.

(b) if only argument II is strong.

(c) if either I or II is strong.

(d) if neither I nor II is strong.

(e ) Both are strong

1. Should literacy be the minimum criterion for becoming a voter in India?

I: Yes.  Illiterate people are less likely to make politically wise decisions of voting for the right candidate or party

II: No. Voting is the constitutional right of every citizen

2. Should the Government close down all loss-making public sector enterprises?

I: No. The employees will lose their jobs, security and earning, what would they do?

II: Yes. In a competitive world, the rule is ‘survival of the fittest’.

3. Should India have no military force at all?

I. No. Other countries in the world do not believe in non – violence.

II. Yes. Many Indian believe in non-violence.

4. Should those who received dowry, despite the law prohibiting it, be punished?

I. Yes. Those who violate law must be punished.

II. No. Dowry system is firmly rooted in the society since time immemorial.

5. Should the council of ministers be kept the same for the entire period intervening two elections?

I: No. Shuffling of ministers and portfolios is a healthy democratic process

II: Yes. Ministers do not get a hold on their portfolio unless kept for a longer duration

6. Should Indian writers be forced to write in Hindi?

I. Yes, because Hindi is our national language.

II. No, because it is important to know other languages

7. Should telecasting feature films be stopped?

I. Yes. Young children are misguided by the feature films.

II. No. This is the only way to educate the masses.

8. Should small states be formed out of bigger states in India?

I. Yes. There will be administrative convenience.

II. No. It will be a danger to national integration.

9. Agriculture in India should be mechanized?

I: Yes, because it is high time that farming is taken to a higher step

II: No, because mechanization requires power and India is already short of it

10. Should there be a world government?

I: Yes, it will help in eliminating tensions among the nations

II: No. Thus only the developed nations will dominate the government

11. Should health care service be nationalized?

I. Yes. It has been done everywhere else.

II. No. The quality of health care service will deteriorate.

12. Should we scrap the ‘Public Distribution System’ in India?

I. Yes. Protectiveness is over, everyone must get the bread on his/her own.

II. No. The poor do not get any benefit because of corruption.

13. Should octroi be abolished?

I. Yes. It will eliminate an important source of corruption.

II. No. It will adversely affect government.

14. Should the government take-up interlinking of all the rivers in India?

I. Yes. This will save the farmers from the erratic nature of monsoons.

II. No. The impact of such a measure on climate and ecology has not been assessed

15. Primary education should be made compulsory

I: Yes, because primary education has been found to be the only solution to decreasing crime rates everywhere in the world

II: No, because even if you make primary education compulsory, children run away from schools and the whole purpose is defeated.

16. Should there reservation for the underprivileged in the private sector too?

I: No, because the job of the private sector is to generate wealth and not to undertake social engineering.

II: Yes. To create an equal society, we need legislation ensuring job quotas for the underprivileged in the private sector as well

17. Are nuclear families better than joint families?

I. No Joint families ensure security and also reduce the burden of work.

II. Yes. Nuclear families ensure greater freedom.

18. Should India encourage exports, when most things are insufficient for internal use itself?

 I: Yes. We have to earn foreign exchange to pay for our imports.

II: No. Even selective encouragement would lead to shortages.

19. India should make voting in elections compulsory for every eligible citizen

I: Yes, because India spends a lot on elections, which are very important in the Indian context and everyone should vote to make India a true democracy.

II: No, because the moment you make things compulsory, it is not a truly democratic way of getting things done.

20. Should cutting of trees be banned altogether?

I. Yes. It is very much necessary to do so to restore ecological balance.

II. No. A total ban would harm timber based industries.

21. Should India remain secular?

I : Yes, because that is the best way of maintaining harmony in a diverse culture like India.

II: No, because different religious groups do not see eye to eye.

22. Should all those convicted for heinous crimes beyond all reasonable doubt be awarded death penalty?

I: No. Those who are repentant for their crimes should be given a chance to improve and lead a normal life.

II: Yes. Such sever punishments only will make people refrain from committing such heinous acts and the society will be safer

23. Should school teachers be debarred from giving private tuitions?

I: No. The needy students will be deprived of the expertise of these teachers.

II: Yes. This is injustice to the unemployed educated people who can earn their living by giving tuitions.

24. Should students union in universities be abolished?

I. Yes. Students can pay full attention to their career development.

II. No. All the great leaders had been student union leaders.

25. Should higher education be reserved for deserving few?

I. No. It will increase unemployment.

II. Yes. It will minimize wastage in higher education.

Answers

  1. E
  2. A
  3. A
  4. A
  5. D
  6. D
  7. B
  8. E
  9. B
  10. B
  11. D
  12. A
  13. E
  14. E
  15. A
  16. B
  17. E
  18. A
  19. A
  20. D
  21. A
  22. B
  23. D
  24. D
  25. C

CLAT Preparation: Time and Distance Questions – Part II

1. A train travels at an average speed of 90 km/hr without any stoppages. However, its average speed decreases to 60km/hr on account of stoppages. On an average, how many minutes per hour does the train stop?

a. 80 m                         b. 64 min              c. 40 min                      d. 20 min

2. A train covers the distance between stations X and Y, 50 minutes faster than a goods train. Find this distance if the average speed of the train is 60 kmph and that of goods train is 20 kmph.

a. 30 km                     b. 25 km           c. 50 km                    d. 20 km

3. If a boat is moving in upstream with velocity of 14 km/hr and goes downstream with a velocity of 40 km/hr, then what is the speed of the stream ?

a. 15 km/hr                 b. 18 km/hr                c. 20 km/hr               d. 13 km/hr

4. Two trains move in the same direction at 50 kmph and 32 kmph respectively. A man in the slower train observes the 15 seconds elapse before the faster train completely passes by him. What is the length of faster train ?

a. 100 m            b. 50 m                  c. 75 m              d. 120m

5. A farmer travelled a distance of 61 km in 9 hours. He travelled partly on foot @ 4 km/hr and partly on bicycle @ 9 km/hr. The distance travelled on foot is:

a. 16 km              b. 12 km                      c. 14 km                       d. 20km

6. In a flight of 600 km, an aircraft was slowed down due to bad weather. Its average speed for the trip was reduced by 200 km/hr and the time of flight increased by 30 minutes. The duration of the flight is:

a. 3 hrs                      b. 1 hr                     c. 2.5 hrs                     d. 2 hrs

7. It takes eight hours for a 600 km journey, if 120 km is done by train and the rest by car. It takes 20 minutes more, if 200 km is done by train and the rest by car. The ratio of the speed of the train to that of the cars is:

a. 1:3             b. 3:2             c. 3:4             d. 2:3

8. A man goes from city A to city B situated 60 kms apart by a boat. His onward journey was with the stream while the return journey was an upstream journey. It took him four and half hours to complete the round trip. If the speed of the stream is 10 km/hr, how long did it take him to complete the onward journey?

a. 1.5 hrs                   b. 3 hrs               c. 1.25 hrs                  d. 2 hrs

9. A thief steals a car at 2.30pm and drives it at 60kmph. The theft is discovered at 3pm and the owner sets off in another car at 75kmph. When will he overtake the thief?

a. 3:45 pm                  b.4:00 pm                 b. 4:30 pm                 d. 5 pm

10. In covering distance,the speeds of A & B are in the ratio of 3:4.A takes 30minutes more than B to reach the destination. The time taken by A to reach the destination is

a. 1 hr               b. 2hr        c. 3hr     d. 2.5 hrs

11. Two boys starting from the same place walk at a rate of 5 kmph and 5.5 kmph respectively.What time(in hours) will they take to be 8.5 km apart, if they walk in the same direction?

a. 10                  b. 18                                c. 12                                    d. 17

12. Two trains starting at the same time from 2 stations 200 km apart and going in opposite direction cross each other at a distance of 110 km from one of the stations.What is the ratio of their speeds?

a. 11: 15           b. 11:9        c. 7:9                d. 9:11

13. A train covers a distance in 50 min ,if it runs at a speed of 48kmph on an average.The speed at which the train must run to reduce the time of journey to 40 min will be?

a. 72 kmph           b. 24 kmph                c. 60 kmph         d. 30 kmph

14. A train can travel 50% faster than a car. Both start from point A at the same time and reach point B 75 kms away from A at the same time. On the way, however, the train lost about 12.5 minutes while stopping at the stations. The speed of the car is:

a. 72 kmph               b. 60 kmph                c. 72 kmph        d. 80kmph

15. A husband and wife 81 miles apart from each other, start travelling towards each other at the same time, as decided. If the man covers 5 miles per hour to the women’s 4 miles per hour, how far will the woman have traveled when they meet?

a. 40 km          b. 36 km            c. 32km       d. 24 km

16. A man on a tour to Delhi travels first 160 km at 64 km/hr and the next 160 km at 80 km/hr. The average speed for the first 320 km of the tour is

a. 69.8          b. 71.1         c. 80.2           d. 49.7

17. A man can row three-quarters of a kilometre against the stream in 11 ¼ minutes and down the

stream in 7.5 minutes. The speed (in km/hr) of the man in stil water is:

a. 3          b. 2                       c. 5         d. 6

18. There are two parallel tracks between two towns F and S. One train which is 150 m in length, moves at a speed of 60 km/hr. Another train, 120 m in length, leaves 5 minutes after the first train in the same direction and has a speed of 90km/hr. At what distance will the second train completely overtake the first train?

a. 11.5 km            b. 10.5 km      c. 21km                  d. 15km

19. A train has 24 carriages, the length of each being 60 metres. The length of the engine is also 60 metres. The train is travelling at a speed of 60 km/hr. Find the time it will take to cross a bridge which is 1.5 kilometres long.

a. 5 min            b. 2.4 min          c. 3 min              d. 4min

20. A man is standing on a railway bridge which is 180 m long. He finds that a train crosses the bridge in 20 seconds but himself in 8 seconds. Find the length of the train and its speed?

a. 100m, 20 m/s       b. 120m, 20 m/s                 c.120m, 15 m/s                 d. 100 m, 15m/s

21. A man sitting in a train which is traveling at 50 kmph observes that a train, traveling in opposite direction, takes 9 seconds to pass him. If the train is 280 m long, find its speed?

a. 60 kmph          b. 62 kmph      c. 72 kmph           d. 80 kmph

22. A person can row a distance of one kilometre downstream in 15 minutes and return in 30 minutes. What is the velocity of the current?

a. 2 km/hr         b. 1.5 km/hr            c. 3km/hr              d. 1 km/hr

23. A train 100 m long is running at the speed of 30 km / hr. Find the time taken by it to pass a man standing near the railway line.

a. 10 s         b. 12s             c. 20 s                   d. 8s

24. There is a cycling track which is 45 kilometres long. Two cyclists start at the same time but from the two different ends of the track. If the speed of one is 16 km/hr and the speed of the other is 14 km/hr, after how much time will they meet?

a. 2 hrs            b. 3 hrs               c. 1.5 hrs     d. 2.5 hrs

25. A boat takes four hours to cover a certain distance along the direction of the flow of the river. The speed of the river is 3 km/hr. The boat takes five hours to make the return journey. What is the speed of the boat?

a. 24 km/hr            b. 18 km/hr       c. 21 km/hr              d. 27 km/hr

Answers

  1. D
  2. B
  3. D
  4. C
  5. A
  6. B
  7. C
  8. A
  9. D
  10. B
  11. D
  12. B
  13. C
  14. C
  15. B
  16. B
  17. C
  18. B
  19. C
  20. C
  21. B
  22. D
  23. B
  24. C
  25. D